Silicon slot fin waveguide on bonded double-SOI for a low-power accumulation modulator fabricated by an anisotropic wet etching technique
J.Byers, K.Debnath, H.Arimoto, M.K.Husain, M.Sotto, Z.Li, F.Liu, K.Ibukuro, A.Khokhar, K.Kiang, S.A.Boden, D.J.Thomson, G.T.Reed, and S. Saito

We propose a new low VπL, fully-crystalline, accumulation modulator design based on a thin horizontal gate oxide slot fin waveguide, on bonded double Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI). A combination of anisotropic wet etching and the mirrored crystal alignment of the top and bottom SOI layers allows us for the first time to selectively pattern the bottom layer from above. Simulations presented herein show a VπL = 0.17Vcm. Fin-waveguides and passive Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) devices with fin-waveguide phase shifters have been fabricated, with the fin-waveguides having a transmission loss of 5.8dB/mm and a 13.5nm thick internal gate oxide slot.

Manipulation of random telegraph signals in a silicon nanowire transistor with a triple gate
F.Liu, K.Ibukuro, M.K.Husain, Z.Li, J.Hillier, I.Tomita, Y.Tsuchiya, H.Rutt, and S.Saito

Manipulation of carrier densities at the single electron level is inevitable in modern silicon based transistors to ensure reliable circuit operation with sufficiently low threshold-voltage variations.

Understanding the charge storage mechanism of conductive polymers as hybrid battery-capacitor material in ionic liquids by n-situ atomic force microscopy and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance
T. Schoetz, M.Kurniawan, M.Stich, R.Peipmann, I.Efimov, A.Ipsas, A.Bund, C.Ponce de Leon, M.Ueda

Safe and sustainable energy storage systems with the ability to perform efficiently during large numbers of charge/discharge cycles with minimum degradation define the main objective of near future energy storage technologies. 

Calibration of offset via bulk for low-power HfO2 based 1T1R memristive crossbar read-out system
C.Mohan, L.A. Camunas Mesa, E.Vianello, L.Periniolla, C.Reita, la Rosa, T.Serrano Gotarredona, B Linares Barranco

Neuromorphic RRAM circuits typically need currents of several mA when many binary memristive devices are activated at the same time. This is due to the low resistance state of these devices, which increases the power consumption and limits the scalability. 

ICON Annual Report 2017
Prof. T Prodromakis, A Westley

As you will read in these pages, our second year has been very exciting and impactful. We have significantly expanded our network of Lloyd’s Register Foundation Doctoral Students that are currently developing twenty-seven unique programs that surpass geographical and disciplinary boundaries. We are also attracting an exciting international audience, with strong industrial and policy making representation, willing to engage in the ICON network and growing this sustainably. We held our first annual conference in Athens Greece where all our students and stakeholders came together. We were delighted to see the drive in our students for describing their work and are thankful to our keynote speakers for engaging with our students and offering advice on future research and translation pathways

Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation
M. Abdi-Jalebi , Z. Andaji-Garmaroudi , S. Cacovich , C. Stavrakas , B. Philippe , J. M. Richter , M. Alsari , E. P. Booker , E. M. Hutter , A. J. Pearson , S. Lilliu , T. J. Savenije , H. Rensmo , G. Divitini , C. Ducati , R. H. Friend & S. D. Stranks

Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency.

Low damage electrical modification of 4H-SiC via ultrafast laser irradiation
M.Ahn, R.Cahyadi, J.Wendorf, W.Bowen, B.Torralva, S.Yalisove, J.Phillips

The electrical properties of 4H-SiC under ultrafast laser irradiation in the low fluence regime (<0.50 J/cm2) are presented. The appearance of high spatial frequency laser induced periodic surface structures is observed at a fluence near 0.25 J/cm2 and above, with variability in environments like in air, nitrogen, and a vacuum.

Electro-polymerisation of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene on reticulated vitreous carbon in imidazolium-based chloroaluminate ionic liquid as energy storage material
T. Schoetz, C. Ponce de Leon, A. Bund, M.Ueda

This work shows the electro-polymerisation of thin film poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on three-dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon substrates by cyclic voltammetry and pulsed polymerisation methods from a Lewis neutral chloroaluminate ionic liquid containing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene monomer.

Electro-polymerisation and characterisation of PEDOT in Lewis basic, neutral and acidic EMImCl-AlCl3 ionic liquid
T. Schoetz, C. Ponce de Leon, A. Bund, M. Ueda

This work studied the electro-polymerisation of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and its electrochemical behavior in Lewis acidic, neutral and basic chloroaluminate ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride aluminum chloride (EMImCl-AlCl3) by cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the electro-polymerisation on vitreous carbon only occurs in Lewis neutral EMImCl-AlCl3 as a dark blue-violet film whereas the electro-polymerisation in a Lewis acidic or basic compositions is not possible due to the interactions between the conductive polymer and the ionic liquid as well as the potential stability limits of the electrolyte.

Perspective—State of the Art of Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries in Non-Aqueous Systems
T. Schoetz, C. Ponce de Leon, M. Ueda, A. Bund

The main challenges to implement sustainable energy storage technologies are the utilization of earth-abundant recyclable materials, low costs, safe cell reactions and high performance, all in a single system. Aluminum batteries seem to cover these requirements. However, their practical performance is still not comparable with the state of the art high performance batteries.

Preparation and characterization of a rechargeable battery based on poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and aluminum in ionic liquids
T. Schoetz , M. Ueda, A. Bund, C. Ponce de Leon

This paper presents a feasibility study of a non-aqueous rechargeable battery based on aluminum and poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) conductive polymer in a chloroaluminate ionic liquid. The polymer was electrodeposited on a vitreous carbon working electrode in a chloride aqueous solution and the structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The doping/de-doping mechanism of chloride ions into the polymer structure was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetry. The deposition/dissolution of the aluminum negative electrode were investigated by electrochemical and microscopic methods.

Rectifier Design Challenges for RF Wireless Power Transfer and Energy Harvesting Systems
A Collado, S Daskalakis, K Niotaki, R Martinez, F Bolos, A Georgiadis

The design of wireless power transfer (WPT) and energy harvesting (EH) solutions poses different challenges towards achieving maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency in these systems. This paper covers several selected challenges when developing WPT and electromagnetic EH solutions, such as the design of multiband and broadband rectifiers, the minimization of the effect that load and input power variations may have on the system performance and finally the most optimum power combining mechanisms that can be used when dealing with multielement rectifiers.

ICON Annual Review 2016
Dr T Prodromakis, A Westley

ICON's first year has been very exciting and impactful.  We have focussed on setting in motion the recruitment of the Lloyd's Register Foundation Doctoral Students, developing unique programmes that surpass geographical and disciplinary boundaries. 

As ICON grows, we will further develop our social media presence for enhancing the public understanding of risk and the new opportunities that nanotechnology brings for making the world a safer place. 

Five ways nanotechnology is securing your future
Dr T Prodromakis

The past 70 years have seen the way we live and work transformed by two tiny inventions. The electronic transistor and the microchip are what make all modern electronics possible, and since their development in the 1940s they’ve been getting smaller. Today, one chip can contain as many as 5 billion transistors. If cars had followed the same development pathway, we would now be able to drive them at 300,000mph and they would cost just £3 each.


Foresight review of resilience engineering
Professor M Fitzpatrick, Professor R Clegg et al

How resilience engineering could enhance safety through the improved resilience of engineered structures, systems, organisations and communities around the world.

Foresight review of Nanotechnology
Professor Sir M Welland, Professor R Clegg et al.

Is nanotechnology the next industrial revolution? Whatever its revolutionary claims the technology is here now. It heralds the ability to manufacture things – materials, components, systems – with atomically precise control. It is the ultimate in miniaturisation; molecular manufacturing.

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